What does Enam NOT mention?
What is now banned?
What causes the air pollution?
To reduce air pollution, ___ are banned.
He says you need to _____ water.
To prevent water pollution, the government ______ the tanneries.
Enam talks about some problems and possible solutions for his country.
Katia: So, Enam, let’s talk about environmental problems of our countries. In Bangladesh, what is an environmental problem?
Enam: Actually, we have a lot of environmental problems in Bangladesh but mainly I’d say the soil contamination is quite bad, and also the air pollution and nowadays we also have water pollution because of tanneries in the cities.
Katia: So, tell me a little bit more about soil contamination?
Enam: Actually, we used to use a lot of polythene bags while shopping for the last ten or fifteen years, but the government has banned polythene two years ago I think but still, we still have a lot of polythene bags in our soil and the polythene bags, it doesn’t go away, or it stays in the ground for more than a hundred years, and for that reason the soil loses its fertility and also even if you want to … if you try to build buildings, you cannot build more than a certain level.
Katia: Alright, what about the air pollution? Is it a big problem?
Enam: Actually, yes, it is a big problem in the capital city in Dhaka because there are a lot of transports, like cars there, and some of them are very old, and it pollutes a lot and there’s dust everywhere in Dhaka, so if you go out in Dhaka in the moring, you must have to take a shower at night.
Katia: Wow! That must be something else. In regards to air pollution, is there something being done to help the problem?
Enam: Yeah, actually, the government is taking a lot of steps like nowadays if you want to import second hand cars from other countries, it couldn’t be older than six years, and they always check the transports that are being driven in Dhaka, and if it it is like bad to the environment, they just ban those transportation and tranports from Dhaka.
Katia: And you also mentioned water pollution. What is the situation with water pollution?
Enam: Actually, the situation is really bad, like the water we have supplied by the government as a infrastructure in Dhaka, it’s really bad. The quality is really bad. You cannot drink that water, and if you want to use that water, you have to like bottle that water, and you have to add all this purification process to use the water. And also, we had some tanneries in the city, around the city, and the waste from those tanneries went into the river and it was quite a bad situation, then the government decided transfer these tanneries out of the city in another place, and it was mandatory for the tanneries to use some more technology to reduce the amount of waste they produce.
Katia: OK, that sounds good. I hope it will benefit the city.
Enam: Yes, I hope so.
The soil contamination is quite bad.
Soil contamination occurs when we dispose of dangerous chemicals in the ground so we can’t grow plants or live on the land. Notice the following:
- Clean up costs for soil contamination are quite high.
- It’s dangerous for humans to eat plants or animals that have been affected by soil contamination.
A lot of polythene bags can be seen on the beach. Polythene is a thin, light, soft plastic, often used to make shopping bags. Here are two samples:
- During the 1980’s, polythene bags replaced paper bags in most major US supermarkets.
- Reusable eco-friendly shopping bags are not only a great alternative to polythene; they’ve also become a fashion trend.
loses its fertility
Soil loses its fertility.
When land loses its fertility, we are unable to grow fruits or vegetables. Notice the following samples”
- Over farming causes the land to lose its fertility.
- Once the soil loses its fertility, it can take many years to recover.
Second hand cars are so much cheaper than new ones. We use the phrase ‘second hand’ to talk about something that was used in the past by someone before us. Here are some samples:
- His first car was an old second hand Volkswagen Beetle.
- I prefer second hand blue jeans. They’re softer and more comfortable.
There are many stages in the purification process. We use a purification process to remove harmful substances from something. Notice the sample sentences:
- The modern water purification process removes parasites and bacteria from drinking water.
- In the past, the most common water purification process was boiling.
Because of tanneries in the city, pollution is a problem. A tannery is a place where we make leather from the skins of animals. The process uses many dangerous chemicals. Here are two samples:
- Wastewater from tanneries caused serious soil contamination in the area.
- Farmers are unable to use the land where the old tanneries once stood.
In the US, it’s mandatory to have auto insurance if you drive. The word ‘Mandatory’ means something that must be done or is required by law.
- In most countries, it’s mandatory for foreigners to carry a passport at all times.
- The government imposed mandatory restrictions on toxic waste disposal.
second hand • purification • tannery • mandatory